There were some who were singing to the accompaniment of Veena And others giving votive offerings to the elephant of Muru- gan. The Epiitle of Jeremy Apocrypha. In this, when a suitor approached the father of the girl, the father would engage him in a fight. Still a suggestion of red being the badge of harlots is given in a passage of Silappadikaram. From the epic days onwards, she had been condemned as the abode of evil. Here the Greek legend gives the clue to determine the nature of the service rendered by Indra to the Chola king.

In Kurun- togai , the heroine tells her maid that on the day of dancing Tunangai, those who jeer at me could have proofs of his her lover’s affection and constancy. Nowhere in the epics do we get evidence of any attempt being made to curtail the ordinary liberties of such women. The entire city of Madura was ringing with the cry Vaigai in spate, come and see the glorious sight. Meyer says that the Karm festival of Urava is something akin to this. Before this it had been held aloft by cords. It is a commemoration of the burning of Kaman or Manniatha. Manu says that this form of marriage was only for the warrior nobility. They would merge their personality entirely in that of their husbands.

Very soon Aryan influence must have penetrated into the Dra- vidian social customs and we find sacrificial fire also tendered episdoe that occasion. This was the one in which love formed the chief part. Next was the transitional stage from the child to the girl lasting for four years, i.

On that occasion Bomman, the father of Bommi, had a hut put up for her in a place to the west of the town and had it decorated well. In such circumstances the girl could do nothing but refuse to worship the moon.


She had to conduct herself in a becoming manner even under very strong emotions. Again it is often said that the padasaam of the nymphea formed the main article of food for widows.

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Even in the Epics and Tantra literature it is only said that prostitutes were found in plenty in holy places. They fought and the seed fell into the waters of Jamuna.

Child-birth was considered ceremonially unclean in many parts of the world. In Aham 28, the maid in order to warn the heroine tells her that if she were to neglect her duty as a watcher, her mother might stop her next day.

The practice of dedicating girls to temples must have come into existence in comparatively modern times.

You are also his mother: In this, when a suitor approached the father of the girl, the father would engage him in a fight. They often provided chances for the subjects to come padasarzm contact with their rulers. There are plenty of instances where these women were not only married but were accepted by the wives as co-wives.

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Among many peoples of the world, the threshold has been considered sacred as it was supposed to be the seat of a deity. An image of the goddess Gouri is made of earth eplsode a smaller one of her husband Iswara and the two are placed together. Madhavi danced before the Chola court, on the day of her initiation. In Luzon epsode part js played by a boy. But it has gradually dwindled to a mere form or pretence.

Seeds of five or nine sorts are mixed and sown in ear- then pots which are made specially for the purpose and are filled with earth. Here some were clutch- ing hold of one another and striking each other, others again were padasafam their secrets over among themselves.


Are you reproaching him for this bit of kindness? It is improbable that it was ever practised.

She shoulders the burden of the duties of the family and padasaraj to be a per- fect hostess, a sympathetic mistress, the delicate love, chastising wife and the forgiving friend and forbearing matron. You know what I did one day. As the consequence of such a fight sometimes complete devastation took place.


This seems to be the early Dravidian form of marriage. Her constant attendance on her friend has been described very beautifully padasafam a stanza of Kuruntogai. This was the form favoured by the Gandharvas, the celestial musicians. In later times, when the purpose of the temple had become a thing of bygones these temple-dancers found a new refuge, i,e, the deity himself, whose favourite art they were required to cherish and develop.

Those of them that needed the protection of the society were given it ; they epislde do things as the other women. Meyer says that the Karm festival of Urava is something akin to this.

Vallu- var, the sage of the Tamil land, has a chapter on these women. Sexual Life in Ancient India p In later times, it was made the subject matter of a species of composition -known a. Even to-day in many homes in South India the swing slung from rafters by iron or brass chains forms the chief article of furniture. The father while going on his way to the house of his illicit love affair sees his son, alights from the carriage, takes him into the house.

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